Updated: Sep 23, 2020

Brake rotors of disc brakes rotate with the wheels, and restraint, which are fitted to the brake calipers, clamp-on these rotors to prevent or decelerate the wheels. The restraint pushing against the rotors generate friction, which transforms K.E. into a thermal energy.

This thermal energy generates heat, but since ost components are exposed to the atmosphere, this heat is often diffused efficiently. This heat-dissipating property reduces brake fade, which is that the phenomenon where braking performance is influenced by the warmth. Another advantage of disk brake is its resistance to water fade, which occurs when the water on the brakes significantly reduces the braking force. When the vehicle is in motion, the rotor spins at high speeds and this rotational motion discharges the water from the rotors themselves, leading to a stable braking force.


The brake rotor (disc) which rotates with the wheel, is clamped by restraint (friction material) fitted to the caliper from each side with pressure from the piston(s) (pressure mechanism) and decelerates the disc rotation, thereby slowing down and stopping the vehicle.

1. Rotor:

Circular disc bolted to the wheel hub that spins with the wheel. Rotors are most ordinarily made from forged iron or steel; however, some very high-end cars use a carbon-ceramic rotor. Rotors are often slotted or drilled for better cooling.

2. Brake pads:

The component that pushes into the rotor, creating friction that slows and stops a car. They feature a metal portion called a shoe and a lining that's attached to the shoe. the liner is what actually comes in touch with the rotor and wears away with use. Linings are made from different materials and fall under three categories: organic, semi-metallic, and ceramic. the liner material chosen will impact the length of brake life, the quantity of noise heard when the brakes are applied, and the way quickly the brakes bring a car to a halt.

3. Piston:

Cylinder connected to the brakes hydraulics. The piston is what moves the restraint into the rotor when the driving force presses the pedal. Some brake systems have one piston that moves both pads, while others have two pistons that push the restraint from all sides of the rotor. Others still have four, six, or maybe eight pistons for higher braking power, at the expense of added cost and complexity.

4. Caliper:

Housing that matches over the rotor and holds the restraint and pistons also contains ducting for brake fluid. There are two sorts of brake calipers: floating (or sliding) and glued. Floating calipers “float” over the rotor, and only have pistons on one side. When the driving force presses the brakes, the pistons press the restraint on one side into the rotor, which causes the caliper to slip over in order that the pads on the non-piston side of the caliper also contact the rotor. Fixed calipers are bolted in situ, and instead, have pistons on each side of the rotor that moves when the driving force applies the brakes. Fixed calipers apply brake pressure more evenly and clamp more firmly on the rotor, however, floating calipers are found on most cars and are perfectly adequate for everyday driving.

5. Sensors:

Some vehicles have brakes that contain sensors embedded within the restraint which work to inform the driving force when the pads are wiped out. Other brake sensors play a neighborhood within the vehicle’s ABS system.

Disc brakes are generally utilized in passenger cars, but thanks to their stable performance at higher speeds and resistance to brake fade, they're gradually spreading into the commercial vehicle segment, where drum brakes were traditionally chosen for his or her long service life. There are two sorts of disc brakes.

The "opposed piston type disc brake" has pistons on each side of the disc rotor, while the "floating type disc brake" features a piston on just one side. Floating caliper type disc brakes also are called sliding pin type disc brakes.


When the driving force steps on the pedal, the facility is amplified by the brake booster (servo system) and altered into a hydraulic pressure (oil-pressure) by the brake cylinder. The pressure reaches the brakes on the wheels via tubing crammed with brake oil (brake fluid). The delivered pressure pushes the pistons on the brakes of the four wheels. The pistons successively press the restraint, which is friction material, against the brake rotors which rotate with the wheels. The pads clamp on the rotors from each side and decelerate the wheels, thereby slowing down and stopping the vehicle.

• When the pedal is pressed, the high-pressure fluid from the brake cylinder pushes the piston outward.

• The piston pushes the brake pad against the rotating disc.

• because the inner brake pad touches the rotor, the fluid pressure exerts further force and therefore the caliper moves inward and pulls the outward brake pad towards the rotating disc and it touches the disc.

• Now both the restraint are pushing the rotating disc, an outsized amount of friction is generated in between the pads and rotating disc and slows down the vehicle and eventually let it stop.

• When the brake pad is released, the piston moves inward, the brake pad far away from the rotating disc. and therefore the vehicle again starts to maneuver.

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